Kerala Plus Two Focus Areas for Board Exam 2022- All Subjects

Plus Two Focus area 2022

Kerala Higher Secondary Board and SCERT has selected some focus areas for students to concentrate on their preparation for the +2 examination March 2022. As, the schools has not fully functioned in the current academic year, and some classes are held in the online platforms, students struggled to cope up with the complete portions assigned for examination for the upcoming Higher Secondary Board examinations. So the Government selected certain portions as focus areas to make things easier, and 90% of the questions for the next examination will be expected to come from these selected topics from each chapter. The classroom sessions from January 1st will also concentrate on the below mentioned focus areas of different subjects.

FOCUS AREA Notes and Materials

Concentrating on portions declared as focus areas will help you to get good grade in the upcoming examination, as all questions have options to select, these .Download focus area notes and materials for all subjects from Plus Two Focus Area Notes and Materials- All Subjects

Important topics classified as Focus Areas in Each Subject

You can refer the important topics from each chapters from the list given below. These guidelines are expected to be applicable for 90% of the questions. Note that, the government has not announced for any omissions of chapters or reduction in syllabus. That means, the other portions are also relevant if you are aiming for an above 90% score in the examination.

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for ENGLISH

1)           The 3Ls of Empowerment   [Speech]

2)         Any Woman  [Poem]

3)         Matchbox  [  Story]

4)         Horegallu  [Anecdote  ]

5)         Mending Wall [Poem]

6)         The Hour of Truth [One Act Play]

7)         A Three Wheeled  Revolution  [  Interview  ]

8)         Rice [Poem]

9)         Dangers  of Drug Abuse  [  Essay]

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for MALAYALAM

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for HINDI

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for MATHS (Science )

ChapterFocus area
RELATIONS AND
FUNCTIONS
1.2 Types of Relations
1.3 Types of Functions
1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
MATRICES3.2 Matrix
3.3 Types of Matrices
3.4 Operations on Matrices
3.5 Transpose of a Matrix
3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
DETERMINANTS4.2 Determinant
4.3 Properties of Determinants
4.5 Minors and Cofactors
4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices
CONTINUITY AND
DIFFERENTIABILITY
5.2 Continuity
5.3 Differentiability
5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
5.8 Mean Value Theorem
APPLICATION OF
DERIVATIVES
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities
6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions
6.4 Tangents and Normals
6.6 Maxima and Minima
INTEGRALS7.3.1 integration by substitution
7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions
7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions
7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1
7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
7.10 Some Properties of Definite Integrals
APPLICATION OF
INTEGRALS
8.2 Area under Simple Curves
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9.2 Basic Concepts
9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given
9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable.
9.5.3 Linear differential equations.
VECTOR ALGEBRA10.4 Addition of Vectors
10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
10.6 Product of Two Vectors
THREE DIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space
11.5.1 Distance between skew lines
11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point.
11.6.3 Equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points
LINEAR
PROGRAMMING
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear
programming problems
PROBABILITY13.2 Conditional Probability
13.4 independent Events
13.5 Bayes’ Theorem

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for MATHS (Commerce )

ChapterFocus area
RELATIONS AND
FUNCTIONS
1.2 Types of Relations
1.3 Types of Functions
1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
MATRICES3.2 Matrix
3.3 Types of Matrices
3.4 Operations on Matrices
3.5 Transpose of a Matrix
3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
DETERMINANTS4.2 Determinant
4.4 Area of a Triangle.
4.5 Minors and Cofactors
4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices
CONTINUITY AND
DIFFERENTIABILITY
5.2 Continuity
5.3 Differentiability
5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
5.8 Mean Value Theorem
APPLICATION OF
DERIVATIVES
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities
6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions
6.4 Tangents and Normals
INTEGRALS7.3.1 integration by substitution
7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions
7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions
7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1
7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
APPLICATION OF
INTEGRALS
8.2 Area under Simple Curves
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9.2 Basic Concepts
9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given
9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable.
VECTOR ALGEBRA10.4 Addition of Vectors
10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
10.6 Product of Two Vectors
THREE DIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space
11.5.1 Distance between skew lines
11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point.
11.6.3 Three point form
LINEAR
PROGRAMMING
12.2. Linear programming problem and its mathematical formulation.
PROBABILITY13.2 Conditional Probability
13.4 independent Events
13.5 Bayes’ Theorem
13.6 Random variables and its probability distributions.

New : Plus Two Model Exam 2021- Question Papers and Answer Keys
Plus Two March 2022 Model Question Papers
Focus Area Notes and Materials 2022
Model Question Papers for +2 Exam March 2022
Full A+ STUDY Materials, Notes, Video classes for Plus Two students

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for PHYSICS

ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELD51.2 ELECTRIC CHARGE
1.5 BASIC PROPERTIES OF CHARGE
1.6 COULOMB’SLAW
1.8 ELECTRIC FIELD
1.9 ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
1.10 ELECTRIC FLUX
1.11 ELECTRIC DIPOLE
1.14 GAUSS’SLAW
1.15 APPLICATIONS OF GAUSS’ S LAW
ELECTR OSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE2.2 ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
2.3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT CHARGE
2.6 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
2.11 CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE
2.12 THE PARALLEL P LATE CAPACITOR
2.14 COMBINATION OF CAPACITORS
2.15 ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR
CURRENT ELECTRICITY3.4 OHM ‘S LAW
3.9 ELECTRICAL ENERGY, POWER
3.10 COMBINATION OF RESISTORS-SERIES AND PARALLEL
3.11 CELLS, EMF, INTERNAL RESISTANCE
3.13 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
3.14 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE
3.15 METER BRIDGE
3.16 POTENTIOMETER
MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM4.2 MAGNETIC FORCE
4.5 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT ELEMENT, BIOT -SAVART LAW
4.6 MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP
4.7 AMPERE’S CIRCUITAL LAW
4.10.1 TORQUE ON A RECTANGULAR CURRENT LOOP IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD
4.11 THE MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER
MAGNETISM AND MATTER5.3 MAGNETISM AND GAUSS’S LAW
5.4 THE EARTH’S MAGNETISM
5.5 MAGNETISATION AND MAGNETIC INTENSITY
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION6.4 FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION
6.5 LENZ ‘ S LAW AND CONSERVATION
6.8 EDDY CURRENTS
6.9 INDUCTANCE
6.10 AC GENERATOR
ALTERNATING CURRENT 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR
7.3 REPRESENTATION OF AC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BY ROTATING VECTORS-PHASORS
7.4 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO AN INDUCTOR
7.5 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A CAPACITOR
7.7 POWER IN AC CIRCUIT: THE POWER FACTOR
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 8.2 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT
8.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 9.2 REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY SPHERICAL MIRRORS
9.3 REFRACTION
9.5 REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES AND BY LENSES
9.6 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
9.8.1 THE MICROSCOPE
WAVE OPTICS 10.2 HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
10.5 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT WAVE AND YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
10.7 POLARISATION
DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER11.3 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
11.6 EINSTEIN’ S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION: ENERGY QUANTUM OF RADIATION
11.7 P ARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT: THE PHOTON
ATOMS12.4 BOHR MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM
12.6 DE BROGLIE’S EXPLANATION OF BOHR’S SECOND POSTULATE OF QUANTISATION
NUCLEI 13.3 SIZE OF THE NUCLEUS
13.5 NUCLEAR FORCE
13.6 RADIOACTIVITY
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS 14.3 INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
14.4 EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
14.7 APPLICATION OF JUNCTION DIODE AS A RECTIFIER
14.9 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND LOGIC GATES

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for CHEMISTRY

Name of ChapterFocus Area
The solid state1.2 Amorphous and crystalline solids
1.4.1 Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
1.5 Number of atoms in a unit cell
1.9.1 Types of point defects
1.10 Electrical properties
1.11 Magnetic properties
Solutions2.3.2 solubility of gas in liquids
2.4.1 Vapour pressure of liquid-liquid solutions (Raoult’s law)
2.5 Ideal and non ideal solutions
2.6 Colligative properties and determination of molar mass
Electrochemistry3.3 Nemst equation
3.4.2. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity withconcentration
3.6.2 Secondary Batteries
3.7 Fuel cells
Chemical kinetics4.2 Factors influencing rate of a reaction
4.3.2 First order reactions and its half life period
4.4 Pseudo first order reaction
4.5 Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction- Arrhenius equation
Surface chemistry5.1.3 Types of Adsorption
5.1.4 Adsorption isotherms
5.2.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis
5.4 Classification of colloids (5.4.2 and 5.4.3)
5.4.6 Properties of Colloidal Solutions (Tyndall effect, Electrophoresis)
5.5 Emulsions
General principles and
Process of Isolation of elements –
6.2 Concentration of ores
6.3 Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore (Calcination and Roasting)
6.4.1 Applications —Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide
6.5 Hall Heroult process (Extraction of Al)
6.7 Refining (Electrolytic refining and Vapour phase refining)
The P-block elements7.3 Ammonia
7.5 Nitric acid
7.8 Phosphorus halides
7.17 Sulphuric acid
7.22 Inter halogen compounds
The d-and f-block elements8.3 General properties of Transition Elements (Magnetic properties, formation coloured ions, formation complexes and catalytic property
8.4 Some important compounds of Transition elements (Potassium dichromate only)
8.5.2 Atomic and ionic sizes
8.7 Some applications of d- and f-block elements
Coordination compounds9.3 Nomenclature of coordination compounds
9.4 Isomerism in coordination compounds
9.5.2 Magnetic properties of coordination compounds
9.6 Bonding in metal carbonyls
Haloalkanes and haloarenes10.4.1 Preparation from alcohols
10.4.3 Halogen exchange
10.5 Preparation of haloarenes (By Sandmeyer’s reaction)
10.7.1 Reactions of haloalkanes (Nucleophilic substitiution)
10.7.2 Reactions of haloarenes (Electrophilic substitution)
Alcohols, phenols and ethers11.4.1 Preparation of alcohols( from carbonyl compounds and
Grignard reagent)
11.4.2 Preparation of phenol (from haloarenes and diazonium salts)
11.4.4 Chemical reactions (Lucas test, dehydration, nitration of
phenol, Reimer Tiemann reaction)
11.5 Some Commercially important alcohols- ethanol
11.6.1 Preparation of ethers-Williamson synthesis
Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids12.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones ( By oxidation of alcohols, by deHydrogenation of alcohols, Rosenmund reduction, Etard reaction, Gatterman-Koch reaction, Friedel Craft’s reaction)
12.4 Chemical reactions (Reduction, Oxidation, Aldol reaction, Cannizzaro reaction)
12.7 Preparation of Carboxylic acid (from aldehydes and ketones, from alkyl benzene)
12.9 Chemical reactions (acidity, reaction with ammonia, Kolbe electrolysis, Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction. Ring substitution)
Amines13.4 Preparation of amines (Reduction of nitrites, amides, Iloffinann Bromamide reaction)
13.6 Chemical reactions ( carbylamine reaction, Hinsberg test)
13.9 Chemical reactions of diazonium salts- Sandmaeyer reaction, coupling reaction
Biomolecules14.1.1 Classification of carbohydrates
14.1.2 Monosaccharides (Preparation of glucose from sucrose)
14.1.3 Disaccharides (glycosidic linkage, invert sugar)
14.1.4 Starch, glycogen
14.2.4 Denaturation of protein
14.5.3 Biological functions of nucleic acids
Polymers15.1 Classification of polymers
15.2.1.2 Some important Addition polymers ( Polythene, Teflon)
15.5.2.1 Some important condensation polymers (Nylon 6, 6 and Nylon 6)
15.2.4 Rubber ( Natural rubber, vulcanisation)
Chemistry in Everyday life16.3.1 Antacid
16.3.3 Neurologically active drugs
16.3.4 Anti microbials antiseptics, disinfectants)

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for ZOOLOGY

Name of the ChapterFocus Area
Human reproduction3.1 Male reproductive system
3.2 Female reproductive system
3.3 Spermatogenesis ,Oogenesis, Function of acrosome
3.4 Menarche, Menopause, LH surge, Ovulation, Corpus Luteum
35 Fertilisation (definition), Cleavage, Mornla, structure of blastocyst, fate of the cells in blastocyst
3.6 Placental hormones, Stem cells, Major features of embryonic development at various months of pregnancy
3.7 Significance of Colostrum
Reproductive health4.2 Various Contraceptive methods
4.4 Sexually transmitted diseases
4.5 Assisted Reproductive Technologies
Principles of inheritance and variation5.2.1 Law of Dominance
5.2.2 Law of Segregation
5.2.2.1 Incomplete Dominance
5.2.2.2 Co-dominance and its example
5.4.1 Sex determinadon In Humans
5.6.1 Pedigree analysis (definition) , symbols used in pedigree analysis
5.6.2 Sickle Cell Anaemia, Haemophilia, Phenylketonuria
5.6.3 Down’s Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Turner’s Syndrome
Molecular basis of inheritance6.1.1 Structure of polynucleotide chain (Salient Features of Double Helix structure of DNA; Central Dogma)
6.1.2 Packaging of DNA helix – (Structure of Nucleosome – Diagram & Explanation alone; Euchromatin; Heterochroniaiiu)
6.2 The Search For Genetic Material (Transforming Principle)
6.2.1 The Genetic Material is DNA (Hershev-Chase Experiment)
6.4.2 The Machinery and the Enzymes (DNA dependent DNA polymerase; Replication fork; DNA Ligase)
6.5.1 Transcription unit( Promoter, Terminator, Structural Gene)
6.5.2 Transcription unit & the Gene (Introns. Exons)
6.6 Genetic code – Salient Features
6.8.1 The Lac Operon
6.9 Human Genome Project(Expansion of HGP,BAC & YAC)
6.10 DNA fingerprinting (Steps;Application)
Evolution7.3 What are the evidences of evolution?
7.7 Hardy Weinberg principle
7.9 Origin and Evolution of man
Human health and
disease
8.1 Common diseases in humans
8.2 Immunity – Structure of Antibody
8.3 AIDS
8.4 Cancer
8.5.3 Effects of Drug/Alcohol abuse
8.5.4 Prevention and control
Microbes in human welfare10.1 Microbes in Household Products
10.2.3 Chemicals enzymes and other bioactive molecules
10.4 Microbes in Production of Biogas
10.5 Microbes as biocontrol agents – Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma
10.6 Microbes as Biofertilisers
Biodiversity and Conservation15.1 Genetic, Species & Ecological Diversity
15.1.2 Patterns of Biodiversity
15.1.4 Causes of biodiversity loss
5.2.2 In situ conservation, Ex situ conservation

Focus Area Notes and Materials 2022
Model Question Papers for +2 Exam March 2022
Full A+ STUDY Materials, Notes, Video classes for Plus Two students

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for BOTANY

Name of ChapterFocus Area
Reproduction in organisms1.1. Asexual reproduction
1.2.1. Gametogenesis
1.2.2. Fertilisation.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants2.2.1 .Structure of microsporangium. Structure of pollengrain
2.2.2. Megasporangium-structure, megasporogcnesis, Female gametophyte
2.2.3. Pollination-Classification based on source of pollen (Autogamy, geitonogamy and xenogamy) and agents of pollination (wind, water and insects -peculiarities with examples) and artificial hybridisation
2.3. Double fertilisation
2.4.2. Embryo- structure
2.4.3. False fruit, True fruit and Parthenocarpic fruit
Strategies for enhancement in food production9.1.1. Dairy farm management
9.1.2 Animal Breeding.
9.1.3. Bee keeping
9.2. Plant breeding- main steps
9.2.3. Plant breeding for improved food quality
9.3 S.C.P
9.4.Tissue culture
Biotechnology- Principles and processes11.2. Tools of recombinant DNA technology 11.2.1.Restriction enzymes, Gel electrophoresis.
11.2.2 Cloning vectors
11.2.3 Competent Host
11.3 . Processes of rDNA technology
11.3.3. Amplification of gene of interest using PCR, 11.3.5.Obtaining the foreign gene product
Biotechnology and its applications12.1. Biotechnological applications in agriculture-Uses of GMOs and Bt cotton
12.2.1. Genetically engineered insulin.
12.2.2. Gene therapy
12.4 Ethical issues.
Organisms and Populations13 1.3 . Adaptations -In organisms of deserts, polar regions and high altitudes
13.2.1 Population attributes- Age pyramids and population density
13.2.2. Population growth (Up to population growth equation)
13.2.4. Population interactions – Parasitism, Commensalism and Mutualism
Ecosystem14.2. Productivity
14.3. Decomposition
14.4. Energy flow -Food chain, Food web and Trophic levels
14.7. Nutrient cycling -Phosphorus cycle
Environmental issues16.2. Water pollution and its control,BOD, Algal bloom and Eutrophication
16.6. Greenhouse effect and global warming
16.7. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere
16.9. Deforestation

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for HISTORY

Name of the ThemesFocus Area
Bricks, Beads and Bones• Subsistence strategies – Agricultural technologies
• Mohenjodaro- A Planned Urban Centre – Laying out drains -Domestic architecture – The Citadel
• Tracking Social Differences- Burials – Looking for “luxuries-
• Finding out about Craft Production – Identifying centres of production
• Strategies for Procuring Materials-Materials from the subcontinent and beyond – Contact with distant lands
• Seals, Script and Weights – Seals and sealings – An enigmatic script – Weights
• The TAM of the Civilization
Kings, Farmers and Towns• The earliest states -First amongst Sixteen: Magadha
• An early Empire -Finding out about the Mauryas, Administering the empire
• New Notions of Kingship -Chiefs and kings in the south -Divine kings
• Towns and Trade – New cities-Urban populations: Elites and crafts persons – Trade in the subcontinent and beyond – Coins and king
• The Limitations of Inscriptional evidence
Kinship, caste and class• The critical edition of the Mahabharatha
• Handling Texts – Historians and the Mahabharatha – Language and Content
• A dynamic text
Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings• The background : sacrifices and Debates -The sacrificial tradition- New questions – Debates and discussions
• Mahavira -The Message of Mahavira- The spread of Jainism
• Buddha-The Buddha and the quest for enlightenment – The teaching of Buddha The followers of Buddha
• Stupas – Why were ships built – How were stops built -The structure of the stupa
• The development of Mahayana Buddhism.
Through the Eyes of Travellers• Al- Biruni- From Khwarizam to the Punjab The Kirtab-ul-Hind- Overcoming barriers to understanding – Al-Biruni’s description of the caste system
• Ibn-Battuta – An early globe-trotter – The coconut and the paan – Ibn Battuta and Indian cities- A unique system of communication
• Francois Bernier – A doctor with a difference – Comparing “East” and “West”- The question of landownership
Bhakti-Sufi Traditions• The Virashaiva Tradition in Karnataka
• The growth of sufism
• New devotional paths- Dialogue and Dissent in North India – Kabir, Baba Guru Nanak and Mirabai
An Imperial Capital – Vijayanagara•The Capital and its environs – Water resources – Fortifications and roads
•Royal Centre – The mahanavami dibba — Other buildings in the royal centre
•Sacred Centre – Choosing a capital – Gopurams and mandapas
Peasants, Zamindars and The State•Peasants and agricultural production – Peasants and their lands (Khud Kashta and Pahi-Kashta)
•Women in Agrarian society
Kings and chronicles •The Akbar Nama and The Badshah Nama
•Capitals and Courts – Capital cities
Colonialism and the Countryside•The Hoe and the Plough – In the hills of Rajmahal
•The Santhals: Pioneer settlers
Rebels and the Raj•Leaders and Followers
•Rumours and prophecies
•Images of the revolt -Celebrating the saviours – English women and the honour of Britain – Vengeance and retribution – The performance of terror – No time for clemency – Nationalist imageries
Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement• A leader announces himself
• The making and unmaking of Non -cooperation -Knitting a popular movement -A people’s leader
• Salt Satyagraha, A case study – Dandi – Dialogues
• Quit India
Understanding Partition • Gendering partition – “Recovering” women
• Oral Testimonies and History
Pre Modern Kerala • Iron age —Megalithic phase- Burial monuments
• Forms of Subsistence (Tinais) – Kurinji- Mullai- Palai — Martitam — Neital
Kerala Towards Modernity• Early Resistance against Colonialism —The Pazhassi revot¬Velu Thampi and Paliath Achan —Kurichiya revolt – Mapplia outbreaks
• Social reform — Reformers and movements
• Struggle for a Democratic Society — Shanar agitation —Vaikom Satyagraha-Guruvayur Satyagraha- Temple Entry Proclamation- Paliyam Satyagraha,

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for POLITICAL SCIENCE

Name of the ChaptersFocus Area
Politics in India since independence
Challenges of Nation Buildinga. Three Challenges.
b. Partition: displacement and Rehabilitation.
c. Integration of Princely states.
d. Re-organisation of States.
Era of One-PartyDominancea. Challenge of building Democracy. (First General Election: a mammoth exercise?)
b. Congress dominance in the first three general elections.
Politics of Planned Developmenta. Idea of Development, Planning and Five Year Plans in India.
b. Key Controversies: Agriculture Vs Industry and Public Vs Private Sector.
India’s External Relations a. Three objectives of Names Foreign Policy.
b. Peace and Conflict with aim.
c. Wars and Peace with Pakistan.
Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress Systema. Fourth General Elections 1967
b. Split in the Congress.
The Crisis of Democratic Ordera. Background to Emergency.
b. Declaration of Emergency and Consequences.
Rise of Popular Movementsa. Chipko Movement.
b. Anti-Arrack Movement.
c. Movement for Right to Information.
Regional Aspirationsa. Jammu and Kashmir.
b. The North-East.
Recent Developments in Indian Politicsa. Context of the 1990s. (The five major developments)
b. Communalism, Secularism, Democracy.
CONTEMPORARY WORLD POLITICS
The Cold War Era a. What is Cold War?
b. Challenges to Bipolarity: NAM.
US Hegemony in World Politics a. The three different understandings of Hegemony.
Alternative Centres of Powera. The Rise of Chinese Economy.
Contemporary South Asiaa. Areas of Co-operation and Differences between India and its South Asian neighbours.
International Organisationsa. Reform of the UN Structures and Process and of Jurisdiction.
b. India and the UN Reforms.
Security in the Contemporary Worlda. What is Security?
b. New sources of Threats.
Environment and Natural Resources a. ‘Global Commons’ and ‘Common Property Resources’.
b. ‘Common but differentiated Responsibility’.
c. India’s stand on Environmental issues.
Globalisation a. Political and Economic Consequences of Globalisation.

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for STATISTICS

  1. Correlation Analysis
    Meaning of Correlation, Types of Correlation – Positive, Negative, Zero. Methods of studying Correlation – Scatter diagram, coefficient of correlation, Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation,Spearman’s Rank correlation( non repeated only).
  2. Regression Analysis
    Concept of Regression, Regression Lines, Equation of Regression lines,Properties of regression coefficients.
  3. Elementary Calculus
    First derivative and Second derivative of simple linear functions. Integration of simple functions. Definite integrals.
  4. Random Variables
    Random Variables- Discrete and Continuous. Discrete Random Variables -Probability mass function (pmf), Cumulative Distribution Function ( cdf). Mean, Variance and their properties. Continuous Random Variables – Probability density function (pdf), properties of pdf.
  5. Discrete Probability Distributions
    Binomial Distribution-pmf, mean and variance. Poisson Distribution-pmf, mean and vanance.
  6. Normal distribution
    Normal Probability Density function,Mean and Variance,Normal curve and its properties.Standard Normal Distribution,Z – transformation and Z – score, Standard Normal Tables,simple problems based on Standard Normal Tables.
  7. Sampling Distributions
    Parameter and Statistic, Sampling Distribution, Determination mean of sample meann(SRSWOR).
  8. Estimation of parameters.
    Statistical inference, Estimation of Parameters, Point Estimation, Properties of a Good
    Estimator -Unbiasedness, Consistency, Sufficiency and Efficiency.
  9. Testing of Hypothesis
    Statistical Hypothesis, Test statistic and Critical Region, Type I and Type II Errors,Level of Significance and Power of Test, Test for significance of Single Mean ( large sample only).
  10. Analysis of Variance
    Causes of variations,Assumptions underlying ANOVA, One way classification by using ANOVA Table.
  11. Statistical Quality Control
    Meaning of Quality, Causes of variations, Variable Control Charts (x chart only)
  12. Time Series Analysis
    Components of Time series, Trend analysis- Method of semi averages, moving averages.
  13. Index Numbers
    Types of Index numbers- Simple Index Number (Simple AM) , Simple Aggregate Method. Weighted Index number ( Laspayre’s, Paasche’s , Fisher’s Index Numbers). Uses of Index Numbers.

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for ACCOUNTANCY with AFS /CA

PART 1- ACCOUNTANCY

1 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations Receipts and Payments Account – Salient Features Preparatation of Receipts and Payments account
Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account
Distinction between Income & Expenditure Account and Receipts and
Payments Account
Treatment of Peculier items – Subscriptions and Special Funds

2 Accounting for Partnership – Basic Concepts
Nature of partnership
Partnership deed and its contents
Provisions of Partnership Act relevant for Accounting
Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
Distinction between Fixed and Fluctuating Capital Accounts
Profit & Loss Appropriation Account
Calculation of Interest on drawings

3 Reconstitution of Partnership – Admission of a Partner
Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
Admission of a New Partner
New profit sharing ratio & Sacrificing ratio
Goodwill – Factors Affecting the value of goodwill
Methods of valuation of goodwill (Average Profit & Super profit Methods) Treatment of goodwill (When the new Partner brings goodwill in cash.)
Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses
Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
Preparation of Revaluation account, Partners Capital Account & Balance sheet

4 Reconstitution of Partnership -Retirement & Death of a partner
New profit sharing ratio & Gaining ratio
Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses Disposal of Amount due to Retiring Partner
Preparation of Partner’s Loan Account

5. Dissolution of Partnership Firm
Dissolution of Partnership
Dissolution of a Firm
Distinction between Dissolution of partnership and dissolution of firm
Preparation of Realisation A/c

PART II COMPANY ACCOUNTS AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (For Accountancy with AFS)

1. Accounting for share capital
Features and types of companies
Share capital and its categories
Nature and classes of shares
Issue of shares – basic journal entries
Calls in arrears and calls in advance
Issue of shares at par and at premium
Over subscription
Under subscription
Forfeiture of shares

2 Issue and redemption of debentures
Meaning and types of debentures
Difference between shares and debentures
Issue of debentures for cash
Redemption of debentures – Different ways (Theory only)

3 Financial statements of a company
Meaning and types of Financial Statements
Objectives of Financial Statements
Limitations of Financial Statements

4 Analysis of financial statements
Objectives of Analysis of Financial Statements
Tools of Analysis of Financial Statements
Comparative statements
Common size statements
Limitation of Analysis of Financial Statements

5 Accounting Ratios
Meaning, advantages and limitations of ratio analysis
Liquidity ratio (Current ratio and Liquid ratio)
Solvency ratio (Debt equity ratio and Proprietary ratio)
Activity ratio (Inventory turnover and Working capital turnover ratio)
Profitability ratio (Gross Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio)

6 Cash flow statements
Meaning of Cash flow statements
Classification of activities for preparation of Cash flow statements
Limitations of Cash flow statements

Part II COMPUTERISED ACCOUNTING (For Accountancy with CA)

1 Overview of Computerised accounting system
Computerised Accounting system – Meaning
Features of computerised accounting system
Components of computerised accounting system
Codification of Accounts – Types of codes
Merits and Demerits of computerised accounting system

2 Spread Sheet
Features of LibreOffice Cale Components of LibreOffice Cale Spread Sheet Operations
Cell references
Functions (Date and Time, Statistical, Logical and Mathematical)

3 Use of spreadsheet in Business Applications
Payroll Accounting
Asset Accounting

4 Graphs and Charts for Business Data Column chart, Bar chart, Pie Chart Elements of a Graph/Chart
Advantages of Graphs and Charts

5 Accounting Software Packge – GNUKhata
Creation of organisation
Ledger Creation
System generated ledger accounts
Types of vouchers and Voucher entry

6 Database Management System
Database – Meaning
Database Management System – Meaning
Creating Table in design view

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for BUSINESS STUDIES

1 Nature and significance of Management
Meaning and characteristics of management
Objectives of Management
Nature of management – Art, Science and Profession
Levels of management
Co-ordination – the essence of management
Importance of Co-ordination

2 Principles of management
Taylor’s Scientific Management
Techniques of Scientific Management
Fayol’s Principles of Management

3 Business Environment
Meaning of Business Environment
Importance of Business Environment
Dimensions of Business Environment
Economic environment in India – Liberalisation, Privatisation,Globalisation

4 Planning
Planning – Features Importance of Planning Planning Process
Types of Plans

5 Organising
Organising – Meaning
Organisational structure and its types
Formal and Informal organisation – Differences
Delegation and Elements of delegation

6 Staffing
Staffing – Meaning
Staffing process
Sources of Recruitment
Important tests used for Selection of Employees
Training Methods

7 Directing
Directing – Meaning
Elements of directing – Supervision, Motivation, Leadership, Communication
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Leadership – Qualities of a good leader Elements of Communication Process
Formal and Informal communication (Meaning)

8 Controlling Controlling – Meaning Controlling process
Techniques of managerial control – Traditional Techniques

9 Financial Management
Financial Management
Financial decisions – Investment decision – Financing decision – Dividend decision (Meaning only)
Capital structure – Meaning
Factors affecting the choice of capital structure
Fixed capital and Working capital (Meaning)

10 Financial Markets
Concept of Financial market
Money market – instruments Capital market (Meaning)
Distinction between money market and capital market
Stock exchange – Functions

11 Marketing
Marketing and selling Functions of marketing
Marketing mix – Elements of marketing mix
Pricing – Factors affecting price determination
Advertising – Merits and Limitations
Sales promotion – Commonly used sales promotion activities

12 Consumer Protection
Consumer Protection Act
Consumer Rights
Redressal agencies under the Consumer Protection Act

Plus Two March 2022 Model Question Papers

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for COMPUTER SCIENCE

ChapterFocus Area
1. Structures and PointersConcept of structure, syntax, and creation; Defn. of Pointer, Use of & and * operators, Static V/s dynamic memory allocation, new and delete operators, Memory leak
2. Concept of Object Oriented ProgrammingPOP V/s OOP, five concepts of OOP
3. Data Structures and OperationsClassification of data structures, Operations on data structures, Concept of stack, queue (linear only) and linked list. Push and Pop operations with algorithms
4. Web TechnologyStatic and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client side and Server side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and empty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(Headings, <BR>, <P>, <HR>, text formatting tags, <MARQUEE>, <FONT>,<IMG>), Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTMLList (Ordered, Unordered, Definition), <A> tag and HREF attribute. Definition of internal and external linking, Table tags, Listing and use of Input controls in Form, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and simple tables.
6. Client side Scripting using JavaScript<SCRIPT> tag, Data types, var keyword, Operators, Control structures and Built-in functions
7. Web HostingTypes of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management SystemAdvantages of database, Components of DBMS, Types of users, RDBMS terminologies , Relational operations (Select, Project, Union, Intersection)
9. Structured Query LanguageSQL components, SQL data types, Constraints, Use of commands (DDL-CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE; DML – SELECT, DELETE, UPDATE with essential clauses only). SQL queries based on Create, Select (only WHERE clause), Delete.
10. Server side Scripting using PHPecho() V/s print, PHP data types, Operators and Control structures
11. Advances in ComputingSerial V/s Parallel computing, Cloud computing and three services, Applications of computational intelligence – listing only
12. ICT and SocietyApplications of ICT – Education, Business, Governance. Cyber crimes against individuals.

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for COMPUTER Application (Commerce)

ChapterFocus Area
1. Review of C++ ProgrammingTokens, Data types, Control statements. Simple programs may be asked.
2. ArraysSyntax to declare array, Accessing of elements, String handling, I/O functions to handle strings. No programs required
3. FunctionsBuilt in functions (Name and use only), Types of arguments, Call by value and Call by reference method. No programs required
4. Web TechnologyStatic and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client side and Server side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and empty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(Headings, <BR>, <P>, <HR>, text formatting tags, <MARQUEE>, <FONT>,<IMG>), Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTMLList (Ordered, Unordered, Definition), <A> tag and HREF attribute, Definition of internal and external linking, Table tags, Listing and use of Input controls in Form, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and simple tables.
6. Client side Scripting using JavaScript<SCRIPT> tag, Data types, var keyword, Operators, Control structures and Built-in functions
7. Web HostingTypes of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management SystemAdvantages of database, Components of DBMS, Types of users, RDBMS terminologies , Relational operations (Select, Project, Union, Intersection)
9. Structured Query LanguageSQL components, SQL data types. Constraints, Use of commands (DDL-CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE; DML – SELECT, DELETE, UPDATE with essential clauses only). SQL queries based on Create, Select (Only WHERE clause) and Delete.
10. Enterprise Resource PlanningFunctional units of ERP(listing only), Examples for ERP packages, Benefits of ERP.
11. Trends and Issues in ICTMobile communication services, Short note on mobile OS, Cyber crimes against individuals.

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for COMPUTER APPLICATION (Humanities)

ChapterFocus Area
1.Introduction to PublishingPublishing through print media(Pre press activities,
Printing processes, and Post press jobs), Types of
Electronic publishing
2. Introduction to Word ProcessorsFeatures of a word processor, Libre Office Writer IDE
Components, Creating-Saving-Closing-Opening a
document, Editing a document, Formatting the
document, Printing the document, Short-cut keys
3. Creating Professional DocumentsInserting Tables, Converting text to table, Inserting graphics-page borders-watermarks, Splitting text into columns, Table of Contents(TOC), Mail merge
4. Web TechnologyStatic and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client side and Server side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and empty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(<P>,<BR>,Heading Tags, text formatting tags,<MARQUEE>,<FONT>,<IMG>) covered in this chapter, Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTMLList (Ordered, Unordered and Definition), <A> tag and HREF attribute, Definition of internal and external linking, ‘fable tags, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and simple tables.
6. Cascading Style SheetCSS-need and advantages, Style rules, Ways to add CSS to a web page, Universal, Type, Class, and ID selectors
7. Web HostingTypes of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management SystemAdvantages of database, Components of DBMS, Types of users, RDBMS terminologies, Relational operations (Select, Project, Union, Intersection)
9. Structured Query LanguageSQL components, SQL data types, Constraints, Use of commands (DDL – CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE; DML -SELECT, DELETE, UPDATE with essential clauses only). SQL queries based on Create, Select (only WHERE clause) and Delete.
10. Trends and Issues in ICTMobile communication services. Mobile Operating systems, Cyber crimes against Individuals

Plus Two Exam 2022- Focus Areas for ECONOMICS

PART 1- INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS

ChapterFocus Area
Chapter 1 Introduction1.1 A SIMPLE ECONOMY
1.2 CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY
1.3 ORGANISATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
1.3.1 The Centrally Planned Economy
1.3.2 The Market Economy
1.5 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS
Chapter 2 Theory of consumer Behaviour 2.1 UTILITY
2.1.1 Cardinal Utility Analysis
2.1.2 Ordinal Utility Analysis
2.2 THE CONSUMER’S BUDGET
2.2.1 Budget Set and Budget Line
2.3 OPTIMAL CHOICE OF THE CONSUMER
2.4 DEMAND
2.4.1 Demand Curve and the Law of Demand
2.4.3 Normal and Inferior Goods
2.4.4 Substitutes and Complements
2.4.5 Shifts in the demand curve
2.4.6 Movements along the demand Curve and Shifts in the Demand Curve
2.5 Market Demand
Chapter 3 Production and costs 3.1 PRODUCTION FUNCTION
3.2 THE SHORT RUN AND THE LONG RUN
3.3 TOTAL PRODUCT, AVERAGE PRODUCT AND MARGINAL PRODUCT
3.4 THE LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL PRODUCT AND THE LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTIONS
3.7 COSTS
3.7.1 Short Run Costs
Chapter 4 The Theory of the Firm under Perfect Competition 4.1 PERFECT COMPETITION: DEFINING FEATURES
4.2 REVENUE
4.3 PROFIT MAXIMISATION
4.3.1 Condition 1
4.3.2 Condition 2
4.3.3 Condition 3
4.3.4 The Profit Maximisation Problem: Graphical Representation.
4.4 SUPPLY CURVE OF A FIRM
4.4.1 Short Run Supply Curve of a Firm
4.4.2 Long Run Supply Curve of a Firm
4.4.3 The Shut Down Point
4.4.4 The Normal Profit and Break-even Point
Chapter 5 Market Equilibrium 5.1 EQUILIBRIUM, EXCESS DEMAND, EXCESS SUPPLY
5.2 APPLICATIONS
Chapter 6 Non-competitive Markets 6.1 SIMPLE MONOPOLY IN THE COMMODITY MARKET
6.1.1 Market Demand Curve is he Average Revenue Curve
6.1.2 Total, Average and Marginal Revenues.

PART II- INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS

ChapterTopics to be focused
Chapter 1 Introduction1.1 EMERGENCE OF MACROECONOMICS
Chapter 2 National Income accounting2.1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF MACROECONOMICS
2.2.1 The Product or Value Added Method
2.2.2 Expenditure Method
2.2.3 Income Method
2.2.4 Factor Cost, Basic Prices and Market Prices
2.2 CIRCULAR FLOW OF INCOME AND METHODS OF CALCULATING NATIONAL INCOME
2.4 Nominal & Real GDP
Chapter 3 Money and banking3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY AND SUPPLY OF MONEY
3.2.1. Demand for Money
3.2.2. Supply of Money
Chapter. 4 Determination of Income and employment4.1 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND ITS COMPONENTS
4.1.1. Consumption 4.1.2. Investment
4.2 DETERMINATION OF INCOME IN TWO-SECTOR MODEL
4.3 DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM INCOME IN THE SHORT RUN
4.3.1 Macroeconomic Equilibrium with Price Level Fixed
4.3.2 Effect of an Autonomous Change in Aggregate Demand on Income and Output
4.3.3 The Multiplier Mechanism
Chapter 5 Government Budget and the Economy5.1 GOVERNMENT BUDGET – MEANING AND ITS COMPONENTS
5.1.1 Objectives of Government Budget 5.1.2 Classification of Receipts
5.1.3. Classification of Expenditure
5.2 BALANCED, SURPLUS AND DEFICIT BUDGET
Chapter 6 Open Economy6.1 THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
6.1.1 Current Account
6.1.2 Capital Account
6.2 THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET
6.2.1 Foreign Exchange Rate
6.2.2 Determination of the Exchange Rate

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Plus two focus areas 2022 for all subjects in PDF format

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